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Introduction to Agency and the Types of Agents

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  1. With the development of transport and communication facilities and with the increase in large-scale production international trade has become possible.
  2. Bennett was therefore able to recover the car but had to compensate Harper for the work done to it.
  3. Is one who has authority to act only in a specifically designated instance or in a specifically designated set of transactions.
  4. The section applies where the seller has already sold goods, rather than where the first disposition is an agreement to sell.
  5. As well as covering the agency agreements expolained above, this also covers other forms of representation made by the owner.

Thus, the owner takes on a risk of the agent exceeding his authority by entrusting his business to a professional agent. [14] However, where the owner did not instruct the mercantile agent to act in his capacity as mercantile agent, but for some other purpose, the owner will not be bound by a transaction and the nemo dat rule will apply. Clearly, the buyer in these two circumstances is in exactly the same position in terms of knowledge and expectation, but in a completely different position in terms of the application of nemo dat.

Creation of the Agency Relationship

For the same reason, Harper could not transfer title to the finance company. Bennett was therefore able to recover the car but had to compensate Harper for the work done to it. A del credere agency guarantees mercantile agent examples the creditworthiness of a buyer and, in case of default, assumes the risk posed to the seller. An “agent” is a person employed to do any act for another, or to represent another in dealing with third persons.

A tort is no less harmful when committed by an agent; a contract is no less binding when negotiated by an agent. What does need to be taken into account, though, is the manner in which an agent acts on behalf of his principal and toward a third party. A mercantile agent is a person who is appointed by those in business to act on their behalf or to represent them in dealing with other persons. The person on whose behalf he acts as an agent is known as the ‘Principal’. The first remaining statutory exception to the nemo dat rule is provided by section 23 of the Sale of Goods Act 1979. This provides that where the seller of goods has a voidable title which has not been avoided at the time of sale the buyer will acquire good title to them.

Nature and characteristics of agency

Suppose Sam, the seller, appoints an agent Alberta to find a buyer for his property. As a special agent, Alberta had authority only to find a buyer; she had no authority to sign the contract. Usually the commission agent is responsible for the sale or purchase of goods on behalf of his client. He tries to acquire buyers for sellers of products and also sellers for the buyers of goods. As well as brokers or auctioneers he receives a commission in return for his work.

Agency Coupled with an Interest

The perfect example for other meanings of mercantile agent is a factor. The factor belongs to wider definition of a general mercantile agent. In conditions that are adjusted for him he does not have control from anyone in selling goods. Due to that fact he has a wide authority and also freedom in selling products under such conditions as he deems appropriate. Of course he has many functions on behalf of his employer such as receiving the delivery of products or receiving the price for the goods he sold.

As well as covering the agency agreements expolained above, this also covers other forms of representation made by the owner. For example, in Eastern Distributors Ltd v Goldring [17] the owner of a van wished to raise a loan on it and got together with a motor trader to deceive the finance company. They each filled in the forms as if the van belonged to the trader and as if the customer (the owner) wished to acquire the van on hire purchase. The finance company then bought the van from the trader and transferred it to the customer on hire purchase.

Advantages of Mercantile agent

Thus, in Shogun Finance v Hudson a rogue took possession of a car under hire purchase terms using a stolen driving licence and then sold the vehicle to an innocent third party before disappearing. As the original contract was void for mistake the rogue was not a person hiring under a hire-purchase agreement and the buyer was unable to rely on the exception to the nemo dat rule. The special agentAn agent hired by contract to carry out specifically stated activities. Is one who has authority to act only in a specifically designated instance or in a specifically designated set of transactions. For example, a real estate broker is usually a special agent hired to find a buyer for the principal’s land.

Those agents are very important when products are going to be purchased from distant markets. The auctioneer is a type of mercantile agent who is resposible for selling goods during the auction on behalf of the principal (seller). An auction sales is a public sales of products, the participants of that are some buyers and only one seller. During the auction the auctioneer is primarily the seller’s agent, but after the licitation he becomes the purchaser’s (winner of the licitation) agent.

Their team of experienced and knowledgeable agents work to negotiate deals with buyers and sellers, identify potential buyers and sellers, and arrange for the transport of goods and services. They also provide market research and financial advice to the merchants they represent. They are committed to providing the best possible service for their clients, ensuring that the goods and services are delivered on time and to the highest standards.

In fact, by definition, “… an independent contractor is an agent in the broad sense of the term in undertaking, at the request of another, to do something for the other. As a general rule the line of demarcation between an independent contractor and a servant is not clearly drawn.”1. To carry out her duties, an agent will often need to appoint her own agents.

When the owner of a product, or item, wants to put it up for auction, they typically reach terms with an auction house, or auctioneer, to handle the sale. The auction house will then set rules and terms of the auction to potential bidders. A contract is void or voidable when one of the parties lacks capacity to make one. If both principal and agent lack capacity—for example, a minor appoints another minor to negotiate or sign an agreement—there can be no question of the contract’s voidability. If the principal is a minor or otherwise lacks capacity, the contract can be avoided even if the agent is fully competent.

The person for whom such act is done, or who is so represented, is called the “principal”. In North America the Hudson’s Bay Company, as restructured after merging with the North West Company in 1821, had commissioned officers who included the ranks of chief trader and chief factor. They all shared the profits of the company during its monopoly years.[6] In the deed poll under which the HBC was governed, there were 25 chief factors and 28 chief traders. Special agents have a much more limited level of authority than universal and general agents. Special agents have the authority to act within a specific process or transaction for a limited time.